Khajuraho Group of Monuments

Khajuraho_group_of_temple

The Khajuraho Group of Monuments is a group of Hindu and Jain temples in Madhya Pradesh, India, They are one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India. Khajuraho, through its architectural magnificence, displays the height of artistic excellence reached by the architects of a particular time in ancient India. The temples are famous for their nagara-style architectural symbolism and their erotic sculptures. Originally a group of 85, they are the largest group of Hindu and Jain temples in the world, although only about 25 of them remain today.

History : 

The Khajuraho group of monuments was built during the rule of the Rajput Chandela dynasty, which reached its apogee between 950 and 1050. It was the principal seat of authority of the Chandella rulers who adorned it with numerous tanks, scores of lofty temples of sculptural grace and architectural splendor. The local tradition lists eighty-five temples but now only twenty-five are standing examples in various stages of preservation. Most temples were built during the reigns of the Hindu kings Yashovarman and Dhanga. Yashovarman’s legacy is best exhibited by The Lakshmana Temple. Vishvanatha temple best highlights King Dhanga’s reign. 

There are three geographical divisions of temples at Khajuraho i.e. western, eastern and southern. Largest among these is the western group. This group consists of famous temples – Jagdambi Temple, Kandariya Mahadeva and Chitragupta Temples. The largest and currently most famous surviving temple is Kandariya Mahadeva built in the reign of King Vidyadhara. The temple inscriptions suggest many of the currently surviving temples were complete between 970 and 1030 CE, with further temples completed during the following decades. Central Indian region, where Khajuraho temples are, remained in the control of many different Muslim dynasties from 13th century through the 18th century. In this period, some temples were desecrated, followed by a long period when they were left in neglect. 

The vegetation and forest took over but in secret yogis and devotees visited the temples. In the 1830s, T.S. Burt, a British surveyor rediscovered the monuments. Apart from these temples, Khajuraho is also popular for its cultural festival of dance and music that is organized by Madhya Pradesh Kala Parishad. Classical dancers from all across India come there to perform.

Description:

3=Devi_Jagdambi_Temple_Khajuraho_-_Outer_Wall_01 These temples, featured with erotic sculptures, have made the name of the town get mentioned in the UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) list of the World Heritage Sites in the nation. Khajuraho Temples are among the most beautiful medieval monuments in the country. The layout, architecture, and construction are unrivaled. They are built of sandstone with unique mortise and tenon joints. Because of the sculptures, the temples are also referred as Kamasutra temples.  A few of the temples are dedicated to the Jain pantheon and the rest to Hindu deities — to God’s Trio, Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva and various Devi forms, such as the Devi Jagadambi. 

681px-Varaha_Sculpture_-_Khajuraho A few of the temples are dedicated to the Jain pantheon and the rest to Hindu deities — to God’s Trio, Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva and various Devi forms, such as the Devi Jagadambi. The artwork symbolically highlights the four goals of life considered necessary and proper in Hinduism – dharma, kama, artha and moksha. Of the surviving temples, 6 are dedicated to Shiva and his consorts, 8 to Vishnu and his affinities, 1 to Ganesha, 1 to Sun god, 3 to Jain Tirthankars. The temples have a rich display of intricately carved statues. While they are famous for their erotic sculpture, sexual themes cover less than 10% of the temple sculpture. The arts cover numerous aspects of human life and values considered important in Hindu pantheon. Further, the images are arranged in a configuration to express central ideas of Hinduism.

The Jain temples are located on east-southeast region of Khajuraho monuments.[37] Chausath jogini temple features 64 jogini, while Ghantai temple features bells sculptured on its pillars.

The temple complex hosts a very good sound-and-light show every evening and an annual dance festival in February. Some of the famous temples in the complex are the Lakshmana Temple, the Vishwanath Temple and the Kandariya Mahadev Temple.

Lakshmana Temple:

Lakshmana_temple Built by Chandela kings, Lakshmana Temple is one of the first magnificent structures established in Khajuraho. Known to be an architectural marvel, this beautiful shrine is amongst the largest temples set in the Western Wing of the Khajuraho complex. Constructed in 930-950 AD, the temple is one of the well-preserved temple having a full five-part floor plan and four subsidiary shrines. The temple is beautifully decorated with patterns of elephants and horsemen carrying out parade and there is a small idol in every corner. It also contains sculptures carved with the life of Lord Krishna like subjugation of the serpent Kaliya and the killing of demon Putana. The shrines also have a three-headed and four-armed image of Lord Vishnu known as Vaikuntha-Vishnu. 

Vishwanath Temple:

Visvanatha_Temple_-_Flickr_-_archer10_(Dennis) Vishwanath Temple is located on the north-eastern corner of the western group complex. Vishwanath temple in Khajuraho is famous for the beautifully carved sculptures of Shivlinga and idol of Lord Brahma. This temple is considered to be a UNESCO world heritage site constructed in the 11th century. The word Vishvanatha means “Lord of the Universe“. The wall of the temples contains carvings of couples making love and various mythical creatures. Adding beauty to the shrine, images of lions and elephants can be seen on the southern as well as northern steps of the temple. The beautifully carved exteriors of the temple are decorated with images of Apsaras to enhance the charm and beauty of this huge temple.

Kandariya Mahadev Temple: 

Kandariya_Mahadeva_Temple,_Khajuraho_(side) Kandariya Mahadeva Temple is the largest, tallest and most beautiful Hindu Temple of the Khajuraho Group of Temples. This is one of the most imposing structures in the Western group of Khajuraho, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Depicting the Chandela art, the huge shrine was constructed in 1025–1050. The mesmerizing looks of the temple and 900 awesomely carved sculptures imply the rich culture of Madhya Pradesh to the visitors. This temple is dedicated to Hindu Lord Shiva, and has a Shiva Linga made of marble, as its sanctum. About 646 statues are installed in its boundary that looks even more appealing. The façade of this temple is east facing.  The beautifully sculpted ceilings and the outer walls with three horizontal panels featuring deities of the Hindu pantheon illustrate the eternal glory of Khajuraho. 

Best Time To Visit:

The beautifully sculpted ceilings and the outer walls with three horizontal panels featuring deities of the Hindu pantheon illustrate the eternal glory of Khajuraho. The ideal time to visit Khajuraho is between the months of October and March. The average temperature remains close to 20°C (68 °F) during the month of October till February making it ideal for outdoor activities like temple visit.

How To Reach:

By Air: Khajuraho has its own Domestic Airport, which is well-connected to most of the Indian cities such as New Delhi, Mumbai, Varanasi, Allahabad, and Bhopal.

By Rail: Khajuraho has a railway station, but only a few trains halt there. Mahoba is the nearest major railhead, 63 km away. Trains from Mumbai, Mathura,Allahabad, Varanasi, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Kolkata, etc. run regularly to Mahoba.

By Road: Khajuraho is well connected with a good bus network. The highways connect Khajuraho with every city in Madhya Pradesh.

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Maharaja Chhatrasal Museum

1024px-Maharaja_Chhatrasal's_Cenotaph,_Dhubela

Maharaja Chhatrasal Museum is a museum located in an old palace at Dhubela, on the Chhatarpur-Nowgaon highway, in Chhatarpur District, Madhya Pradesh, India. The museum is housed in palace built by Maharaja Chhatrasal and has eight galleries. The first two galleries exhibit belongings from the Gupta and Kalchuri dynasties, displaying inscriptions, plates, sculptures, paintings, arms and armours etc. The museum houses a rich collection of artefacts from the ancient as well as from the modern era.  The museum houses a wide range of sculptures of the Shakti cult. It has also a significant collection of Jaina images. It also displays the garments, weapons and paintings of the Bundela kings. This museum was established in September, 1955 in a palace built by Chhatrasal. 

Maharaja_Chhatrasal_Museum_Dhubela_Exhibit_Item_(3) Shri_Etarla_10_Century_AD,_Maharaja_Chhatrasal_Museum,_Dhubela Aadinath_10_Century_AD,_Maharaja_Chhatrasal_Museum_Dhubela_Exhibit_Item_(13)

Maharaja Chhatrasal Maqbara is one of those historical monuments of Chattarpur that is actually the cenotaph of the Maharaja of Chhatrasal, it is also an important monument from architectural point of view. It is an octagonal structure situated on a high platform. Built in 17th century the monument is a fine example of Bundeli style. Sheetal Garhi was Built in 17th century during the period of Maharaja Chhatrasal, this famous monument exemplifies the rich Bundeli art. This fortress was built for residential purpose to escape the excessive heat in the peak of summer. Its interior is decorated with foliage patterns. This huge entrance has two gates. Shri Krishna pranami mandir is near Maharaja Chhatrasal Cenotaph. 

The museum also has an Amusement Gallery, which has eight huge concave-convex mirrors that form funny and distorted images of visitors. The museum houses a unique and unparalleled collection of yogini statues of stone age. Run by the archeology department, the museum in itself is a record of archives. In the Painting Gallery of the museum, various painting depicting rulers of Charkhari, Rewa and Panna, scenes from Ramakatha and Shrikrishna Leela have been displayed. The Arms Gallery houses weapons of former states of Rewa, Chhatarpur, Charkhari and Panna which belong to 16th to 18th century AD. 

The vast collection of various sculptures and artefacts helps tourists to understand the lifestyle of the Bundela kings. The sculptures exhibited in the museum belong to the Shakti cult. The wide collection includes weapons, garments and paintings of the Bundela kings.

How To Reach :

Khajuraho is well connected by Air, Rail and Road to all Major city of India. 

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Satpura National Park

Satpura_Tiger_Reserve

Satpura National Park is located in the Hoshangabad district of Madhya Pradesh in India. Its name is derived from the Satpura range, covers an area of 524 km2. Its name Satpura is a sanskrit word, which simply means Seven-hills. It is part of Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve. Most of the Satpura range was heavily forested, but the area has been subject to gradual deforestation in recent decades, although significant stands of forests remain. These forest enclaves provide habitat to several at risk and endangered species, including the Tiger. The terrain of the national park is extremely rugged and consists of sandstone peaks, narrow gorges, ravines and dense forests. The altitude ranges from 300 to 1,352 metres (984 to 4,436 ft). It has Dhoopgarh peak as high as 1,350 metres (4,430 ft) and the almost level plains of Churna. Satpura National Park is one the areas of this landscape preserved marvelously for protection of flora and fauna.

Satpura National Park is the entrance to dense forests, rich wild life, sprwling meadows, large backwaters and beautiful views of nature that leave the traveller awestruck. It is the place where every true wildlife lovers should must visit to appreciate the peaceful jungle, away from hustle & bustle of safari jeeps, beautiful hilly terrains, deep gorges, rivulets, virgin forest locations etc. The wide varieties of animal are the main attractions of the place and you will not return empty handed. This park is ideal for wildlife photography. Tiger reserve is offers panoramic view of nature at its best with rocky mountain peaks, gorges, gurgling water falls, sparkling stream, dense deep valleys, rivulets etc. This unexplored hill station was first explored by Captain James Forsyth of British Army in 1857.

Flora & Fauna :

Serpent_eagle,_Satpura_Tiger_Reserve,_Madhai,_Madhya_Pradesh Spotted_Deer_@Satpura_Tiger_Reserve Satpura National Park is very rich in biodiversity. It is home to tigers, leopards, sambar, chital, Indian muntjac, nilgai, four-horned antelope, chinkara, Gaur, wild boar, wild dog, bear, black buck, fox, porcupine, flying squirrel, mouse deer, Indian giant squirrel, and numerous species of birds. It is inhabited by the Korku and Gond tribes. There are a variety of birds. Hornbills and peafowl are common birds found here. Here we can find 50 species of mammals, 254 species of birds, 30 species of reptiles, 50 species of butterflies and much more. Attractive birds species includes , Malabar whistling Thrush, Paradise Fly-catcher, Honey Buzzard, Malabar pied Hornbill etc. The flora consists of mainly sal, teak, tendu, Phyllanthus emblica, mahua, bel, bamboo, and grasses and medicinal plants. Various ways of wildlife watching distinguishes its from other tiger reserves of India. Here one can do jeep safari, elephant safari, walking safari & boat safari. The environment of this park is just out of this world with more than 1300 different species of plants available like the flora includes sal, teak, tendu, mahua, bel, bamboos, bushes, unrestrained lantanas and large number of medicinal plants about which you must not have heard also. Wildlife in Satpura National Park encompasses 50 species of mammals, more than 30 species of reptiles and 254 species of avi-fauna.

Best time to visit :

In the summer days the place experiences the temperature of 32° in average and in winter the temperature falls to 20° in average. The best time of the year to visit the Satpura National Park is between the months of November to May. During monsoon season, park remain closed for visitor due to poor accessibility inside park forest. The park is closed for visitor from 30th June to 30th September.

How To Reach :

By Air : The nearest Airport is Jabalpur Airport (265 km) and Bhopal airport (225 km). Both are well connected to all major city of India.

By Rail : Their are many ways to reach Satpura National Park by train transportation. Nearby railway stations for reaching park are: Sohagpur (18kms), Hoshangabad (45kms), Itarsi (65kms) & Pipariya (40kms).

By Road : Satpura National park is close to Pachmarhi hill station and can be easily travelled by road from cities like Bhopal, Jabalpur, Chindwara, Nagpur. It is in Hoshangabad district and well linked by road from other places.  

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Kanha Tiger Reserve – National Park

Tiger_Kanha_National_Park

Kanha National Park, is one of the tiger reserves of India and the largest national park of Madhya Pradesh. in the Mandla and Balaghat districts, Which is a vast expanse of grassland and forest Spread across 940 sq.km. The present-day Kanha area was divided into two sanctuaries, Hallon and Banjar, of 250 and 300 km2 respectively. Kanha National Park was created on 1 June 1955 and in 1973 was made the Kanha Tiger Reserve.  Kanha Tiger Reserve being declared as one of the finest wildlife areas in the world. this is still one of India’s best parks for sightings. And here you can really go deep into the forest for a perhaps more complete safari experience than the rush-and-grab outings that some complain of at Bandhavgarh.

images Tiger_at_Tadoba The park has a significant population of Bengal tiger, Indian leopards, the sloth bear, barasingha and Indian wild dog. The lush sal and bamboo forests, grassy meadows. There is every chance of seeing a tiger on early morning elephant rides, or from vehicles both in the morning or evening. Barasingha deer, star attraction of Kanha, often adorn their antlers with tufts of grass in the rutting season. The lowland forest is a mixture of sal (Shorea robusta) and other mixed forest trees, interspersed with meadows. The highland forests are tropical moist dry deciduous type and of a completely different nature with bamboo on slopes. The landscapes and the surrounding luxurious meadows along with the wooded strands and the dense maroons of forests offer magnanimous sightseeing experiences for the nature lovers. Making the land more beautiful and adorable, the crystal clear streams amidst the dense jungle cleanses the surroundings and makes the wildlife unrivalled. 

Flora :

Morning-in-kanha-park Kanha Tiger Reserve is home to over 1000 species of flowering plants. It is a low land forest that brings a mixture of Sal and other mixed forest trees, mingled with meadows. The moderate and favorable climate and varied topography supports the growth of a rich and varied flora in the Park, and given the high rainfall precipitation. The Sal is good quality timber, the leaves are good fodder, fruits have nutritional & medicinal value and is valued greatly by tribals. Kanha Tiger Reserve abounds in meadows or maidans which are basically open grasslands that have sprung up in fields of abandoned villages, evacuated to make way for the animals. Kanha meadow is one such example. There are many species of grass recorded at Kanha some of which are important for the survival of barasingha in the reserve. Aquatic plants in numeroustal (lakes) are life line for migratory and wetland species of birds.

Fauna :

Tiger_Kanha_National_Park Trailing a wild tiger lazing around the shades of the forests of Kanha offers its own charm. fauna has given Kanha its deserved reputation for being one of the finest and best administered National Parks in Asia. Kanha Tiger Reserve has species of tigers, leopards, wild dogs, wild cats, foxes and jackals. Among the deer species, swamp deer  or hard ground barasingha is pride of the place as it is the only subspecies of swamp deer in India. The varieties of animals can be discovered in abundance at this amazing reserve. It is the only habitat of the rare hard ground Barasingha, often referred as “the jewel of Kanha” and most famed the Indian Tigers. The park is also home to Sambars and Gaurs, which are generally seen in the green meadows, grazing away the grasses to glory. In summer gaur inhabit meadows and water holes in the park. Blackbuck have inexplicably become very rare. 300 species of birds and the most commonly seen birds are the Black Ibis, Bee-eaters, Cattle Egret, Blossom-Headed Parakeets, Pond Heron, Drongos, Common Teal, Crested Serpent Eagle, Grey Hornbill and many more. 

Best Time To Visit : 

The park’s flora and fauna are documented in the park’s Kanha Museum. The temperature rages from a maximum of 42°C in May ad June to around 4°C in winter. The season for visit kanha tiger reserve is winter from November to June. Park remain closed during monsoon.

How To Reach :

By Air : The Nearest airport are Jabalpur (160 km) and Raipur (250). Which are well connected to all major city of India.

By Rail : The Nearest airport is jabalpur (160 km) which is well connected to all major city of India.

By Road : Kanha national park is well connected by road from rest of the India.

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Gwalior

Gwalior Gwalior is the is a major city of Madhya Pradesh and one of the Counter-magnet cities. Gwalior’s legendary beginning stems from the hermit Gwalipa curing the Rajput chieftain, Suraj Sen. Famous for its dramatic and dominant hilltop fort, which Mughal emperor Babur reputedly described as the pearl of Indian fortresses. Gwalior was once not only the capital of Scindias but is also a historically rich and one of the most popular cities of Madhya Pradesh. Gwalior makes an interesting stop en route to some of the better-known destinations in this part of India. City is well known for its majestic fort, considered as one of the best in the world. This ancient capital city has been a cradle of great dynasties and a living heritage heroism.

Gwalior was the winter capital of the state of Madhya Bharat which later became a part of the larger state of Madhya Pradesh. Gwalior remained a princely state of the British Raj with the Scindia as the local rulers. High rocky hills surround the city from all sides, on the north it just forms the border of the Ganga- Yamuna Drainage Basin. Gwalior is known for its historic massive 15th century fort. The distinctive and colourful hill fort of Gwalior on the north-south corridor was the key to control of the Central Provinces. Hindi and English are the main languages which are spoken here.

Gwalior Attraction :

Gwalior Fort :

Gwalior_1 The foundation of the Gwalior Fort was laid by Raja Suraj Sen on the advise of Sage Gwalipa some 1,000 years ago on a hill where he was supposedly cured of his leprosy. An architectural marvel of the 8th century, Perched high at the top of a vast rocky massif, Gwalior Fort is a place hard to miss being visible from every nook and corner of the city. The location of Gwalior Fort itself is stunning. Situated on a sandstone hill, it has been the administrative headquarters of the Tomars and witness to the rule of several dynasties. Full of medieval architecture, the fort houses a number of historic buildings including Man Mandir, Gujari Mahal cum museum, Teli-ka-Mandir Temple and many others. Gwalior Fort has two main palaces Gurjari Mahal and Man Mandir. The five hundred year old Gwalior Fort has passed through the hands of the Tomars, the Marathas, the Mughals as well as the British. Today, however, the fort is a part of the property of the Scindias. The fort is situated on a high sandstone precipice about 91 m above the surrounding plain and is 2.8 km long and 200-850 m wide. Surrounded by concrete walls of sandstone, the Gwalior Fort encloses three temples, 6 palaces and several water tanks. The whole fort is adorned with two distinctive style of architecture, one is Hindu style and another is Muslim. The architecture of Gwalior fort stand tall among other forts in India even the largest fort Agra Fort.

Jai Vilas Palace :

JaiVilas_Palace_Gwalior_-_panoramio One of the most popular tourist attractions of Gwalior, Jai Vilas Palace is a stunning display of architectural grandeur of the bygone era. The Maharaja of Gwalior Jayajirao Scindia Build Jai Vilas Mahal in 1874. The palace built in European style has a blend of Tuscan, Italian and Corinthian styles. The Jai Vilas Mahal has a total of 400 rooms out of 25 of these rooms have been kept exclusively for the Jiwaji Rao Scindia Museum which is another attraction. It also has a big chandelier that weighs almost 7 tonners which is said to be one of the largest in the whole world. Jai Vilas Place is decorated beautifully with furniture from Varsailles, ornate mirrorworks, Venetian cut glass swings, Belgian Chandeliers, intricate hand made carpets, large ethnic dining table with tracks for the silver toy train that was used to carry food all over the table to different chairs. The Palace is one of the major tourist attractions in Gallant Gwalior in Madhya Pradesh.

Man Mandir Palace :

JaiVilas_Palace_Gwalior_-_panoramio The palace was established by Tomar ruler, Raja Man Singh between 1486 and 1516, however the remains of the palace still showcases the beautiful carvings and designs of that era. The palace was ruled by various rulers such as Kachwaha Rajputs, Qutubiddin Aibawk, the Tomaras, Mughals, Marathas, the British and the Scindias. This palace is also known as the Chitra Mandir or the Palace of Paintings because of the tiled and painted decorations of peacocks and other birds.  The palace is richly ornamented and architecturally interesting. This palace also won the admiration of Akbar. The palace has two open courts in between with apartments on two levels. There are underground prison cells as well, built later by Mughals. This was the prison where the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb jailed Murad, his brother and had murdered him. A special sound and light show organized every evening for the visiting tourists at the palace.

Gujari Mahal :

Gujari_mahal_-_panoramio Gujari Mahal was constructed by Raja Mansingh for his favourite queen, Mrignayani in the 15th century. It has witnessed rough weather and has gone through the test of time.  Gujari Mahal is now in ruins and also an archaeological museum and is known by the name of Central Archaeological Museum. The rich collection of sculptures displayed in the museum includes the famous Shalabhanjika Yakshi, Nataraj Ardhanareshwar, Trimurthi and Yamraj. The palace also boasts of a large collection of valued sculptures that depict the cultural legacy of the Hindus and the Jains as far back as early 1st and 2nd century BC as well as several ancient fresco paintings. There are other surprises that Gwalior stores in its magic box. These includes the beautiful buildings namely Teli ka Mandir, Sas Bahu ka Mandir and the mausoleum of the sufi saint Gaus Mohammad are among the most well known.

Teli Ka Mandir :

Teli_Ka_Mandir Teli Ka Mandir, Gwalior is one of the favored destinations in the city of Gwalior located in the Gwalior Fort. It is the tallest and the most impressive temple in the Gwalior Fort. It is a 100 feet high temple, which has influence from both Buddhist and Hindu architectural styles.  Teli Ka Mandir is dedicated to the god Vishnu. but was later converted for the worship of the other major Hindu God Shiva. The temple represents a roundish barrel or a shikhar and presents a stunning sight. This temple is famous for its unique architecture as the temple holds a Dravidian look, but the sculptures are typically North Indian.

Saas Bahu Temple :

Saas-Bahu_Temple_form_the_front,_Gwalior_Fort Sass Bahu temple in Gwalior is famous temple, is dedicated to Lord Vishnu by the King Mahipala is build in 9th century. Its called Sahastrabahu Temple is located to the east of Gwalior fort. It is an example of architectural brilliance. Adding to the beauty of temple, the carved pillars along with a stairwell provide support to the huge structure. Raised on a platform, the walls of the temple have scriptures, figures and intricate stone works and is an example of the architectural skills. These are two temples situated adjacent to each other and are decorated with impeccable carvings and sculptures.

Sun Temple :

Surya_mandir_Birla_Sun_temple_Gwalior Sun Temple is dedicated to Sun, which is located near Residency at Morar is one of the important religious centers in the historic city of Gwalior. The temple was constructed by G.D. Birla, the famous industrialist of India in 1988.  The exterior of the temple is decorated with red sand stone while the interiors present a perfect white marble work. The temple not only derives its nomenclature from the legendary Sun Temple at Konark in Orissa, the architecture too is inspired by the same. These temple is a modern heritage and the temple attracts tourists from all parts of the world. The Surya Mandir, Madhya Pradesh is one of the new entrants into the list of the places of interest in Gwalior.

Gwalior Zoo :

Bengal_Tiger_In_Sundarbans_Bangladesh Gwalior Zoo or Gandhi Zoological Park is the main attractions of the city and one of the beautiful zoological parks of Madhya Pradesh. Families and Wildlife enthusiasts can visit the Gwalior zoo which has a good collection of animals including a white tiger. The Phool Bagh campus also includes a gurudwara, a mosque, a theosophical lodge and a prayer hall.

How To Reach :

By Air : Gwalior is well connected to all major cities of India By Air

By Rail : Gwalior is well connected to other major cities of the country via regular trains.

By Road : Gwalior is well connected to all major city of India by highway.

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