Keoladeo National Park

A_view_of_the_Bharatpur_bird_sanctuary

Keoladeo National Park or Keoladeo Ghana National Park formerly known as the Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary in Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India. It is also a declared World Heritage Site owing to its vast collection of Avi-Fauna and wildlife. Keoladeo National Park (KNP), formerly known as the Bharatpur Ghana Bird Sanctuary. Locally, it is still known as ‘Ghana’ which means a dense forest. It acquired its name, ‘Keoladeo’ due to the presence of the Lord Shiva temple at the centre of the Park. It is also a major tourist centre with scores of ornithologists arriving here in the hibernal season. It was declared a protected sanctuary in 1971.

The park is home to over 370 species of birds and animals such as the basking python, painted storks, deer, nilgai and more. It is a man-made and man-managed wetland and one of the national parks of India. The reserve protects Bharatpur from frequent floods, provides grazing grounds for village cattle, and earlier was primarily used as a waterfowl hunting ground. This ‘Bird Paradise’ was developed in a natural depression wetland that was managed as a duck shooting reserve at the end of the 19th century. 

History:

The sanctuary was created 250 years ago and is named after a Keoladeo (Shiva) temple within its boundaries. It was a being a hunting ground in the times of Maharajas used to be host to a number of Duck shoots organised here by the Maharajas for the British dignitaries. And duck shoots were organised yearly in honor of the British viceroys. In one shoot alone in 1938, over 4,273 birds such as mallards and teals were killed by Lord Linlithgow, the then Governor-General of India. The park was established as a national park on 10 March 1982. Previously the private duck shooting preserve of the Maharaja of Bharatpur since the 1850. In 1985, the Park was declared a World Heritage Site under the world Heritage Convention. It is a reserve forest under the Rajasthan Forest Act, 1953 and therefore, is the property of the State of Rajasthan of the Indian Union.

Flora And Fauna:

Migratory_birds_at_Keoladeo_National_Park The park is the only area with significant vegetation, hence the term ‘Ghana’ meaning ‘thicket’. The principal vegetation types are tropical dry deciduous forest, intermixed with dry grassland in areas where forest has been degraded. Rich of natural flora and fauna, spread in over 29Km2 of area. Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary contains a wide variety of flora representing 64 families, 181 genera and 227 subspecies. Its unique mosaic of habitat types ranges from temporary swamps and potholes, which hold water for a few weeks only, to floodplains where water flows over for several months. 

Keoladeo_ghana_national_park_with_blue_bird Darter_sitting_on_a_tree@_Keoladeo_National_Park Keoladeo Ghana Bird Sanctuary as the name suggest is a haven for the birdwatchers and avifauna . Over 370 bird species have been recorded in the park. also home to around 50 species of fishes, 13 species of snakes, 7 species of turtles and many more wild animals. The land insects found here in great numbers are good for the breeding of land birds. It is the only wintering ground for the central population of the rare and highly endangered Siberian Crane (Grus leucogeranus) in India. A large number of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds occur in the monsoon and autumn months. That is why this park is regarded as the hub of ornithologist for their research works on the various species of birds. During its evolution, it was declared as a protected sanctuary in 1971 and was declared as World Heritage Site in 1985! For ornithologists, the park has 2 important aspects- one important aspect is its location that is a favourite of the migratory waterfowl that comes here in the Indian subcontinent before it goes to the different places. 

Climate:

The summers are too hot in Keoladeo as the temperatures can reach soaring heights making it a really unbearable place for tourism, the temperature ranges from 38 ° C to 45°C. winter the temperatures reach a maximum of 350C and a minimum of 50C The monsoon precipitation is about 69 cm. November to March is the best time, for the migratory birds are there as well as the residents. But the park is a treat all year round.

How To Reach:

By Air: The nearest airport is Agra (55 km), Which is well connected to all major city of India.

By Rail: Bharatpur Railway station is 5 km away from the national park, Which is well connected to major city of India like Mumbai, Delhi, Agra, Kolkata etc.

By Road: Buses are available for Bharatpur from most cities and towns in Rajasthan and taxi services are available from major cities like Agra, Jaipur and Delhi. Alwar, Fatehpur Sikri, Mathura and Sariska are also in close proximity to Bharatpur.

ImageCopyright by commons.wikimedia.com

 

Sundarbans National Park

Sudhanyakhali_Jetty

Sunderbans national park is located at the South Eastern tip of the 24 Paraganas district in the state of West Bengal, India. It is a National Park, tiger reserve, and a Biosphere Reserve in the Sundarbans delta. It got its name from one of the mangrove plants known as Sundari (Heritiera Minor). The mangrove forests are a part of the greater Sundarbans and lies in close proximity to the Sundarbans reserve forests in the neighboring republic of Bangladesh.  It contains the world’s largest area of mangrove forests. They are constituted by the crisscrossing of 54 small islands along with numerous River Ganges tributaries. Sundarbans National Park is a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Southeast Bengal in India, which is formed by three rivers named Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna. It is considered as a World Network of Biosphere Reserve (Man and Biosphere Reserve) in 2001.

Sundarbans Sundarbans National Park, the land where entire wildlife  embroidered to the perfection, is situated in South 24 Parganas at the  most charismatic location of Sundarban delta which is largest delta of the world. The total area of the Indian part of the Sundarban forest, lying within the latitude between 21°13′-22°40′ North and longitude 88°05′-89°06′ East, is about 4,262 sq km, of which 2,125 sq km is occupied by mangrove forest across 56 islands and the balance is under water. 

Today this tiger conservation effort in the Sunderban area is really rocking the dense masses with the exemplified glaring of royal tigers in Bengal. It is estimated that there are now 400 Royal Bengal tigers and about 30,000 spotted deer in the area. The forest is called ‘Sunderban’due to the rich growth of Sundari trees.

Flora:

Tiger_Sundarbans_Tiger_Reserve_22.07.2015 Sundarbans-national-park The mangrove vegetation of Sundarbans has 64 plant species with the capacity to withstand estuarine conditions and saline showering on account of tidal effects. There is mangrove scrub forest, salt water mixed forest, brackish water mixed forest and alluvial grasslands. Due to the dense and huge forest reserve, Sundarbans has also been classified as a World Biosphere Reserve. The crab-like red flowers of the kankra and the yellow flowers of khalsi can be seen. Some of the other commonly found plants and trees in the park are dhundal , passur, garjan,  sundari and goran. The forest in the Sunderbans mainly consists of Saline Water Type Mixed Forest, Tidal Swamp Forest, Brackish Water and Palm Forests. In general 64 various species of Flora has been discovered in the deltaic Sunderbans. 

Fauna:

SUNDARBANS_3 Sundarbans (Sundari Trees) The Sundarbans forest is home to more than 400 tigers. This area has a silent charm that manages to amaze one with the simplicity and naturalness of its ecological balance in spite of offering habitat to some of the most dynamic and awe inspiring fauna. it was discovered that the Bangladeshi part of the Sunderbans supports diverse biological resources that includes 150 species of commercially important fishes, 270 species of birds, 42 species of mammals, 35 reptiles and 8 amphibian species. The royal Bengal tigers have developed a unique characteristic of swimming in the saline waters, and are famous for their man-eating tendencies. Tigers can be seen on the river banks sunbathing between November and February. Apart from the Bengal tiger, Fishing cats, Leopard cats, Macaques, Wild boar, Indian grey mongoose, Fox, Jungle cat, Flying fox, Pangolin, Chital, are also found in abundance in the Sundarbans. Some of the aquatic animals found in the park are sawfish, butter fish, electric rays, silver carp, starfish, common carp, horseshoe crabs, prawn, shrimps, Gangetic dolphins, skipping frogs, common toads and tree frogs.

Summers could be quite hot and send the temperature shooting up, but are an ideal time to visit the wildlife sanctuary. The monsoons with full generosity in showers may make travelling a little difficult but the lush green surroundings might just make up for it. The best time to visit Sunderbans is during winters between December and February.although the park is open for longer from September to March. This is the period when the maximum migratory birds are also present here.

How To Reach:

By Air: The nearest airport is Dum Dum Airport Kolkata (166 km), which is well connected to all major city of India.

By Rail: The nearest railway station is Canning (48 km), regular local trains running between Canning and Kolkata.

By Road: Sundarban National Park is well connected with Kolkata – Basanti High way.

ImageCopyright by commons.wikimedia.com

 

Satpura National Park

Satpura_Tiger_Reserve

Satpura National Park is located in the Hoshangabad district of Madhya Pradesh in India. Its name is derived from the Satpura range, covers an area of 524 km2. Its name Satpura is a sanskrit word, which simply means Seven-hills. It is part of Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve. Most of the Satpura range was heavily forested, but the area has been subject to gradual deforestation in recent decades, although significant stands of forests remain. These forest enclaves provide habitat to several at risk and endangered species, including the Tiger. The terrain of the national park is extremely rugged and consists of sandstone peaks, narrow gorges, ravines and dense forests. The altitude ranges from 300 to 1,352 metres (984 to 4,436 ft). It has Dhoopgarh peak as high as 1,350 metres (4,430 ft) and the almost level plains of Churna. Satpura National Park is one the areas of this landscape preserved marvelously for protection of flora and fauna.

Satpura National Park is the entrance to dense forests, rich wild life, sprwling meadows, large backwaters and beautiful views of nature that leave the traveller awestruck. It is the place where every true wildlife lovers should must visit to appreciate the peaceful jungle, away from hustle & bustle of safari jeeps, beautiful hilly terrains, deep gorges, rivulets, virgin forest locations etc. The wide varieties of animal are the main attractions of the place and you will not return empty handed. This park is ideal for wildlife photography. Tiger reserve is offers panoramic view of nature at its best with rocky mountain peaks, gorges, gurgling water falls, sparkling stream, dense deep valleys, rivulets etc. This unexplored hill station was first explored by Captain James Forsyth of British Army in 1857.

Flora & Fauna :

Serpent_eagle,_Satpura_Tiger_Reserve,_Madhai,_Madhya_Pradesh Spotted_Deer_@Satpura_Tiger_Reserve Satpura National Park is very rich in biodiversity. It is home to tigers, leopards, sambar, chital, Indian muntjac, nilgai, four-horned antelope, chinkara, Gaur, wild boar, wild dog, bear, black buck, fox, porcupine, flying squirrel, mouse deer, Indian giant squirrel, and numerous species of birds. It is inhabited by the Korku and Gond tribes. There are a variety of birds. Hornbills and peafowl are common birds found here. Here we can find 50 species of mammals, 254 species of birds, 30 species of reptiles, 50 species of butterflies and much more. Attractive birds species includes , Malabar whistling Thrush, Paradise Fly-catcher, Honey Buzzard, Malabar pied Hornbill etc. The flora consists of mainly sal, teak, tendu, Phyllanthus emblica, mahua, bel, bamboo, and grasses and medicinal plants. Various ways of wildlife watching distinguishes its from other tiger reserves of India. Here one can do jeep safari, elephant safari, walking safari & boat safari. The environment of this park is just out of this world with more than 1300 different species of plants available like the flora includes sal, teak, tendu, mahua, bel, bamboos, bushes, unrestrained lantanas and large number of medicinal plants about which you must not have heard also. Wildlife in Satpura National Park encompasses 50 species of mammals, more than 30 species of reptiles and 254 species of avi-fauna.

Best time to visit :

In the summer days the place experiences the temperature of 32° in average and in winter the temperature falls to 20° in average. The best time of the year to visit the Satpura National Park is between the months of November to May. During monsoon season, park remain closed for visitor due to poor accessibility inside park forest. The park is closed for visitor from 30th June to 30th September.

How To Reach :

By Air : The nearest Airport is Jabalpur Airport (265 km) and Bhopal airport (225 km). Both are well connected to all major city of India.

By Rail : Their are many ways to reach Satpura National Park by train transportation. Nearby railway stations for reaching park are: Sohagpur (18kms), Hoshangabad (45kms), Itarsi (65kms) & Pipariya (40kms).

By Road : Satpura National park is close to Pachmarhi hill station and can be easily travelled by road from cities like Bhopal, Jabalpur, Chindwara, Nagpur. It is in Hoshangabad district and well linked by road from other places.  

Imagecopyright by commons.wikimedia.org

Periyar National Park

Periyar_National_Park_-_Ramprasad_T

Periyar Tiger Reserve, Thekkady, is an example of nature’s bounty with great scenic charm, rich bio diversity and providing veritable visitor satisfaction. Sprawled over an area of 925 km2. In this astounding location of Kerala, the Periyar National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary is considered as the most protected area for the elephants and the tigers. One of the most renowned national parks in South India, the Periyar National Park is set high at the Western Ghat ranges. is one of the 27 tiger reserves in India. Zealously guarded and efficiently managed reserve is a repository of rare, endemic and endangered flora and fauna and forms the major watershed of two important rivers of Kerala, the Periyar and Pamba. Formed with the building of a dam in 1895, this reservoir meanders around the contours of the wooded hills, providing a permanent source of water for the local wildlife. Though its a Tiger Reserve, tourists come here to view the Indian elephants in the act of ablution and playfulness by the Periyar lake. Apart from Elephants, the other animals to be seen in the Periyar sanctuary are Gaur, Wild Pigs, Sambar deer, Barking Deer, Mouse Deer, Dole or Indian Wild Dog and very rarely, a Tiger.

The Periyar Wild Life Sanctuary was declared a Tiger Reserve in 1978. This sanctuary offers the unique opportunity to watch and photograph wild elephants from close quarters. This lake is created with the construction of a dam in 1895. This lake strolls around the forested hills. For the local wildlife it is a lasting source of water. Though it is known across the region as a Tiger Reserve but visitors arrive here to see the playfulness of the Indian elephants while taking bath in the Periyar Lake.

Climate :

Periyar_Tiger_Reserve,_Periyar_Lake,_Kerala The temperature varies depending upon the altitude and it ranges between 15 °Celsius in December and January and 31 °Celsius in April and May. During the monsoon (July-August), it ranges from 19°C to 21°C. Annual precipitation is between 2000 and 3000 mm, about two thirds occurring during the southwest monsoon between June to September. The best season to visit Periyar wildlife sanctuary is from the months of October and June, Elephants in search of water come out during summer months of March to June and hence, for best wildlife viewing.

Flora :

Periyar_Tiger_Reserve The park is made up of tropical evergreen and moist deciduous forests, grasslands, stands of eucalyptus, and lake and river ecosystems. The research followed 49 species of mammals, 246 species of birds, 28 species of reptiles, 8 species of amphibians, 22 species of fishes and 112 species of butterflies. In the central part of the park, Moist-deciduous forests and Woody grasslands abound. The floral attractions of the park are approximately 2000 species, The tall trees of the forest rise upto a height of 130 to 140 feet! Primates of Four species can be obtained in this park such as Common Langur, lion-tailed macaque, the Nilgiri Langur and Bonnet Macaque. The medicinal gloriosa lily grows in the park. The endemic flora includes Habenaria periyarensis and Syzygium periyarensis.

Fauna :

Periyar_National_Park_-India-8 Set amidst Cardamom and Pandalam hills of western ghats in Kerala, Periyar National Park is home to some of the most exotic fauna in the world. There are 35 species of mammals recorded in the park, including many threatened species. It is an important tiger and elephant reserve. The most ferocious of these, undoubtedly is the Tiger. Many tourists visit Periyar just in order to get a glimpse of the Tiger that according to estimates number between 35 and 50. It is valuable for Indian elephant and also for a few of white tigers found here. Other mammals include the gaur, sambar, wild pig, Indian giant squirrel, Travancore flying squirrel, jungle cat, sloth bear, Nilgiri tahr, lion-tailed macaque, Nilgiri langur, Salim Ali’s fruit bat, stripe-necked mongoose, and Nilgiri marten. About 266 species of birds can be seen in the park, including Nilgiri wood pigeon, Blue-winged parakeet, Crimson-backed sunbird, Brahminy kite, white-bellied blue catcher, Malabar grey hornbill, Sri Lanka frogmouth, Rufous-bellied hawk eagle, Black baza and Spot-bellied eagle owl. A four-day survey was conducted on December 1–4, 2016, organised under the aegis of the Periyar Tiger Reserve (PTR) and found the presence of 13 new bird and 16 butterfly species that were undetected earlier. are about 40 species of fish in the local lakes and rivers include the Periyar latia, Periyar barb, Periyar trout, Channa barb and Travancore loach.

How To Reach :

By Air : Kochi (Cochin)(200-kms)  or Madurai(140-kms) in Tamil Nadu is the nearest airports from Periyar.

By Train : Kottayam is the nearest railway station from Periyar National Park which is only 114 Kms. away. Other nearest railway stations are Changanassery (120 Kms.), Madurai: (135 Kms.) and Ernakulam (190 Kms ) etc.

By Road : Periyar National Park is well connected to Major Cities and Places by road network. There are a number of government and privately operated vehicles that go to Periyar National Park at frequent intervals.

Imagecopyright by commons.wikimedia.org

Bannerghatta National Park

Bannerghatta_National_Park_Bangalore_8713

Bannerghatta National Park is located at a distance of 22 km south of Bangalore. The Bannerghatta National Park is hailed as one of the most famous and prominent of all national parks in India.  The park, which was established in 1971, which gradually grown into the present Biological Park by 2002. Ten reserve forests of Anekal Range of the Bangalore Forest Division come under this national park.  It is a popular tourist destination with a zoo, a pet corner, an animal rescue centre, a butterfly enclosure, an aquarium, a snake house and a safari park. There are ancient temples in the park for worship and it is a destination for trekking and hiking. The Zoo Authority of Karnataka, the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, and the Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and Environment (ATREE) are collaborating agencies. 

Bannerghatta_National_Park_4-24-2011_12-42-40_PM It is one among the few places in the world where wilderness is preserved so close to a big city. One of the famous picnic spots near Bangalore, Bannerghatta National Park houses bisons, lions, elephants, panthers, etc. A pet’s corner as well as a museum is also situated inside this national park. One of the main attractions of Bannerghatta National Park is lion and tiger safari. The Tiger Reserve of the park has been recognized by the Forest Department of India. The other attractions of this park include its crocodile, snake farm and the Butterfly park. The field activities of the biological park are many fold as it is classified as one of the major zoo in the state/country with a lot of scope for scientific development. One hundred and one species of birds have been recorded in the park. One of the major attractions of the Bannerghatta National Park is a Butterfly Park, the first of its kind in India. The park is home to a hundreds of different species of both flora and fauna. Other attractions at the Zoo include a crocodile farm, serpentarium and a newly added butterfly park.

Entrance_Buterfly_park-_Bennargatta_national_park The butterfly conservatory is a circular enclosure stretching over an area of 10,000 sq ft, covered by a polycarbonate roof. There are approximately 20 species of butterflies at the conservatory, which has an adjusted environment that suits the butterflies. The setting is entire tropical, with humid climate and an artificial waterfall. In addition, a portion of the park is used as a sanctuary for rescued wild animals, mainly from circuses. The rescue center is off-limits for visitors.

Elephants_at_bannerghatta_national_park Apart from the wild animals, the park is also famous for few ancient temples for worship and few places for hiking and trekking for adventure lovers. The Bannerghatta national park covers six small villages encircled for the purpose of sheep and cattle farming and nearly sixteen villages are at the border of the park. The park was especially established for the citizens and youngsters of Bangalore city to have Biological Recreation Centre near the city. The very popular Suvarnamukhi stream runs through the park which is said to have magical curative properties in it. The Bannerghatta National Park is the first biological park in India in which Elephants can roam around in an area of 122 acres without any chains, as because the whole forest has been fenced and has been designed by the elephant behavior expert Carol Buckley.

The climate is suitable for a visit throughout the year. The weather is moderate in the range of 20-32 Degree C all through the year, Through the best time to visit Bannerghatta is between September and January.  The park is normally closed on every Tuesday. It is open through the rest of the week from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM.  

How to Reach : 

By Air : Nearest Airport is Bangalore(22 km). Which is well connected to all major city of India

By Rail : Nearest railway station is Bangalore(22 km). Which is well connected to all major city of India

By Road : Bannerghatta National Park is well connected by roads. BMTC (Govt) and Private busses ply frequently between Bangalore and Bannerghatta National Park.

Image Copyright by commons.wikimedia.org

Dudhwa National Park

Dhudhwa_Rashtriya_Udyan

Dudhwa National Park residing the areas of Lakhimpur & Kheri district of Uttar Pradesh and covers an area of 490.3 km , with a buffer zone of 190 km. The Dudhwa National Park, better known as the Garden of Eden, is a home to more than 38 species of mammals, 90 species of fish, 400 species of birds and 16 species of reptiles and is Indian portion of terai arc landscape, stretching from Yamuna river in the west to Valmiki Tiger Reserve, Bihar in the east, spreads across five states along the Shivaliks and Gangetic plains.  Dudhwa National Park lying adjacent to the Indo-Nepal border bringing together two most incredible sanctuaries of the area namely, Kishanpur and Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuaries to represent the excellent natural forests and greenery along the Terai region. The Park is tiger reserve since the year 1879, the region of Dudhwa became a popular National Park during 1977 and acquired the project Tiger during 1988.

This region comes under the sub Himalayan area called as Terai belt. This Terai region is acknowledged as the most endangered ecosystems throughout the world.  It is well known sanctuary of the swamp deer and is home to tigers, leopards, varieties of deer, antelopes, elephants, jackal, hyena etc, amid thick green forest and grassland. It is also a bird watchers’ heaven. A large number of rhinos are also found here. In this scenario Dudhwa Tiger Reserve comprising of three Protected Areas i.e. Dudhwa National Park, Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary and Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, stands out as the primary Protected Area Complex of the terai with one of its components having the status of a National Park. 

Climate :

Dudhwa experiences extreme climates, and has a humid subtropical with dry winters type of climate. During the chilly winters from mid-October to mid-March, temperatures hover between 20 and 30 °C . In summer season, visiting the national park will make one work into a lather. The temperature raise upto 40 degrees centigrade in summers, Prevalent winds are westerly. The hot wind Loo blows strongly from mid-April up to end of May. The average annual rainfall recorded ranges around 16cm between Monsoon starting in mid-June and lasting up to Mid November. Temperatures range from between a minimum of9 °C (48 °F) in winter to a maximum of up to 45 °C (113 °F) in peak summer.

Habitat : 

Isolated_trails_through_the_dense_Dudhwa_National_Park Dudhwa being spread over an expanse of approximately 811 sq km of marshes, grasslands and dense forests, is an ideal and protected home for over 38 species of mammals, 16 species of reptiles and numerous species of birds. Dudhwa is tiger country. Billy still points out that vast parts of the tiger’s range that abuts Dudhwa were left out of the park and he lobbies constantly to increase Dudhwa’s area to safeguard tigers. All stand in a perfect setting that best harbors a wide range of flora here. The reminiscent forests of the park cover a wide area with termite mounds and patches of reverie trees, forming the flora at this National Park. The park is home to one of the finest forests in India, some of these trees are more than 150 years old and over 70 ft (21 m) tall. The grasslands comprise about 19% of the park. The wetlands constitute the third major habitat type and include the rivers, streams, lakes and marshes. While many of the major wetlands are perennial with some amount of surface moisture retained round the year, some dry up during hot summer. 

Fauna : 

A_male_tiger Dudhwa_(30783128830) Major attractions of Dudhwa National Park are the tigers (population 98 in 1995) and swamp deer (population over 1,600). Billy Arjan Singh successfully hand-reared and reintroduced zoo-born tigers and leopards into the wilds of Dudhwa. Notable variety of rarest species of fauna can be found at Dudhwa National Park. The fascinating wildlife here includes, sloth bear, ratel, civet, jackal cat, fishing cat, jungle cat, spotted deer, hog deer and barking deer. Besides the abovementioned animals, the avian life at Dudhwa is a delight for any avid bird watcher. The marshland of Dudhwa national park is home to around 400 species of resident and migratory birds that include the Swamp Partridge, Bengal Florican, Great Slaty Woodpecker, plenty of painted storks, owls, barbets, woodpeckers, sarus cranes, minivets etc. It includes among others, painted storks, black and white necked storks, sarus cranes, woodpeckers, barbets, kingfishers, minivets, bee-eaters, bulbuls and varied night birds of prey. For waterbirds, a spotting scope or telescope mounted on a tripod can be great help. Dudhwa National Park is a stronghold of the barasingha. Around half of the world’s barasinghas are present in Dudhwa National Park. Much of the park’s avian fauna is aquatic in nature and found around Dudhwa’s lakes such as Banke Tal.

Flora : 

Shadow_at_Dudhwa Forest_view_of_dhudhwa_national_park The abundance of rain makes Dudhwa brim over with fresh plant life-grasslands, thick forests, It has some of the best forest area of Saal trees in the globe, in the midst of other flora and is a virtual unexplored paradise for nature lovers. All stand in a perfect setting that best harbors a wide range of flora here. The reminiscent forests of the park cover a wide area with termite mounds and patches of reverie trees, forming the flora at this National Park as well the most extensive tracts of moist grasslands that remain in this region. The signifivant tree species that make this park astonishingly verdant are shorea robusta, dalbergia, romentosa, sissoo, eugenia, terminalis, jambolana, adina cordifolia, bombax malabaricum and terminalia Belerica.

Best Time To Visit : 

 It’s the important thing to know the park is open or not when you are going to safari and sightseeing in Dudhwa.  The park is opened for visitors from 15 November to 15 June. Though the months of May and June are a little too hot for comfort. While visiting to Dudhwa National Park throughout winter you must remember to have some goods woolen clothes as these are very peaceful to you when you are in the park, mostly stuck between Decembers to Feb.

How To Reach : 

By Air : Nearest Airport is Lucknow (238 km) which is well connected to all major city of country. 

By Rail : Dudhwa Railway station at a distance of 4 kms, Palia (10 kms) and Mailani (37 kms), however the most convenient way would be to travel to Lucknow and hit the road or take a train to any of the nearer stations from there.

By Road : There are lots of bused from uttar pradesh state road transport corporation that between Lucknow and Dudhwa National park. 

Image copyright by commons.wikimedia.org, en. wikimedia.org

Kanha Tiger Reserve – National Park

Tiger_Kanha_National_Park

Kanha National Park, is one of the tiger reserves of India and the largest national park of Madhya Pradesh. in the Mandla and Balaghat districts, Which is a vast expanse of grassland and forest Spread across 940 sq.km. The present-day Kanha area was divided into two sanctuaries, Hallon and Banjar, of 250 and 300 km2 respectively. Kanha National Park was created on 1 June 1955 and in 1973 was made the Kanha Tiger Reserve.  Kanha Tiger Reserve being declared as one of the finest wildlife areas in the world. this is still one of India’s best parks for sightings. And here you can really go deep into the forest for a perhaps more complete safari experience than the rush-and-grab outings that some complain of at Bandhavgarh.

images Tiger_at_Tadoba The park has a significant population of Bengal tiger, Indian leopards, the sloth bear, barasingha and Indian wild dog. The lush sal and bamboo forests, grassy meadows. There is every chance of seeing a tiger on early morning elephant rides, or from vehicles both in the morning or evening. Barasingha deer, star attraction of Kanha, often adorn their antlers with tufts of grass in the rutting season. The lowland forest is a mixture of sal (Shorea robusta) and other mixed forest trees, interspersed with meadows. The highland forests are tropical moist dry deciduous type and of a completely different nature with bamboo on slopes. The landscapes and the surrounding luxurious meadows along with the wooded strands and the dense maroons of forests offer magnanimous sightseeing experiences for the nature lovers. Making the land more beautiful and adorable, the crystal clear streams amidst the dense jungle cleanses the surroundings and makes the wildlife unrivalled. 

Flora :

Morning-in-kanha-park Kanha Tiger Reserve is home to over 1000 species of flowering plants. It is a low land forest that brings a mixture of Sal and other mixed forest trees, mingled with meadows. The moderate and favorable climate and varied topography supports the growth of a rich and varied flora in the Park, and given the high rainfall precipitation. The Sal is good quality timber, the leaves are good fodder, fruits have nutritional & medicinal value and is valued greatly by tribals. Kanha Tiger Reserve abounds in meadows or maidans which are basically open grasslands that have sprung up in fields of abandoned villages, evacuated to make way for the animals. Kanha meadow is one such example. There are many species of grass recorded at Kanha some of which are important for the survival of barasingha in the reserve. Aquatic plants in numeroustal (lakes) are life line for migratory and wetland species of birds.

Fauna :

Tiger_Kanha_National_Park Trailing a wild tiger lazing around the shades of the forests of Kanha offers its own charm. fauna has given Kanha its deserved reputation for being one of the finest and best administered National Parks in Asia. Kanha Tiger Reserve has species of tigers, leopards, wild dogs, wild cats, foxes and jackals. Among the deer species, swamp deer  or hard ground barasingha is pride of the place as it is the only subspecies of swamp deer in India. The varieties of animals can be discovered in abundance at this amazing reserve. It is the only habitat of the rare hard ground Barasingha, often referred as “the jewel of Kanha” and most famed the Indian Tigers. The park is also home to Sambars and Gaurs, which are generally seen in the green meadows, grazing away the grasses to glory. In summer gaur inhabit meadows and water holes in the park. Blackbuck have inexplicably become very rare. 300 species of birds and the most commonly seen birds are the Black Ibis, Bee-eaters, Cattle Egret, Blossom-Headed Parakeets, Pond Heron, Drongos, Common Teal, Crested Serpent Eagle, Grey Hornbill and many more. 

Best Time To Visit : 

The park’s flora and fauna are documented in the park’s Kanha Museum. The temperature rages from a maximum of 42°C in May ad June to around 4°C in winter. The season for visit kanha tiger reserve is winter from November to June. Park remain closed during monsoon.

How To Reach :

By Air : The Nearest airport are Jabalpur (160 km) and Raipur (250). Which are well connected to all major city of India.

By Rail : The Nearest airport is jabalpur (160 km) which is well connected to all major city of India.

By Road : Kanha national park is well connected by road from rest of the India.

Image copyright by commons.wikimedia.org

Jim Corbett National Park

Jim_Corbett_National_Park_(India)

Jim Corbett National Park is the oldest national park in India and was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park to protect theendangered Bengal tiger. Located in the district of Nainital, Corbett National Park is a perfect place for nature enthusiasts and wildlife lovers. The park got its name after the famous hunter who turned into a conservationist, Jim Corbett and is a hub of excitement and thrill and is addressed as a wonderful place. A niche set on the foot of the Himalaya and secluded within the border of Uttarakhand, the Corbett National Park, acknowledged as the first national park in India, is an ultimate wilderland where one can visualize of an ideal forest camping amidst the vast rich and intense verdure. Surrounded by jaded greens and grasslands, this wildlife sanctuary is blessed with varieties of flora and fauna. 

River_in_Corbett_National_Park The recent trend of the tourist visit that has been marked by the park authority shows dynamic increase in the number of visitors coming every year. More than 70,000 visitors come to the park in peak season from the different part of the country and abroad. Dense moist deciduous forest mainly consists of sal, haldu, peepal, rohini and mango trees. Forest covers almost 73% of the park, 10% of the area consists of grasslands. It houses around 110 tree species, 50 species of mammals, 580 bird species and 25 reptile species. 

The park is divided into four separate zones, known as Durgadevi, Dhikala, Jhirna, and Bijrani, sprawled across an area of 520 square kilometers. All four of these are ideal for spotting a tiger in its natural habitat.

General Informtaion  : 

Identification : First and Oldest National Park in India

National Park Area : 520.8 km2 (201.1 sq mi)

Reserve Area : 1318 km2

Location : located in Nainital district of Uttarakhand

Temperature range : 5 °C (41 °F) to 30 °C (86 °F) during the winter, Summer temperatures normally do not rise above 40 °C (104 °F).

Altitude : between 360 m (1,181 ft) and 1,040 m (3,412 ft).

Annual Rainfall : 1400-2800 mm

Best Season : November to June

Attraction of Park :

Flora :

An_elephant_herd_at_Jim_Corbett_National_Park The Jim Corbett National Park is blessed with the natural bounty in the form of distinct flora which comprises of fresh water flora and alpine flora. A total of 488 different species of plants have been recorded in the park. It is an absolute haven to nature lovers and the whispering ambiance simple makes it an ideal destination for wildlife photography. easily spot Chir pine, which is the only conifer of the park and Banj Oak, which is essentially a Himalayan species. Other major tree species are Kanju, Date Palms, Jamun, Aamla, Bel, Kusum, Mahua and Bakli. Amongst the floral family that makes your time calico, the verdure is patched with Kachnaar (Bauhinia variegata) with pink to white flowers, Semal (Bombax ceiba) with big red blooms, Dhak or Flame-of-the-forest (Butea monosperma) with bright orange flowers, Madaar or Indian Coral (Erythrinia indica) with scarlet red flowers and Amaltas (Cassia fistula) with bright yellow chandelier. Being one of the richest home of wild animals, the Jim Corbett National Park is rich in flora too. More than 75% of the total area of the Corbett is dominated by Sal forests.

Fauna : 

Bengal-Tiger_Corbett_Uttarakhand_Dec-2013 2 Chestnut headed bee-eaters at Jim Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand, India Corbett National Park was the first Tiger Reserve under the project in India. So from that point of view Corbett is one of the oldest as well as the largest national park of India.  Dotted within the whispering grasslands and dense forest the Corbett wildlife sanctuary hosts more than 500 species of resident and migratory birds have been categorized, including the crested serpent eagle, blossom-headed parakeet and the red junglefowl, varied species of reptiles, amphibians, fish and insects. Due to the abundance of camouflage in the reserve, tigers, though behold the virtue within the forest, are hard to spot. The park is an ideal home for many majestic animals like the Royal Bengal Tiger, Asiatic Elephant and many other wild animals. Due to healthy population of wild today, Corbett is one of best preserved parks with 164 numbers of tigers and over 600 elephants. As per the recent survey Corbett reveals the highest density of population of tigers in the country at 20/100 square kilometers. The park also includes several species of cats like the jungle cat, fishing cat and leopard cat. One of the major attractions is the Indian python and the park is also a haven to several species of birds like the crested serpent eagle, blossom-headed parakeet and the red jungle fowl. 

Amongst the beautiful animals dwelling inside the park, Tigers are the main attraction. The park has an entire reserve for the tigers and this place witnesses many visitors coming to catch a glimpse of the majestic creatures. Indeed, Corbett National Park is a prominent vacationing place to be surrounded by nature and wildlife.

Dhikala Zone : 

Corbett_View Dhikala is a well-known destination in the park and situated at the fringes of Patli Dun valley. Decorated with primitive natural beauty, the zone is recognized as the excellent tourist area and is closed during the rest year. The best time to visit Dhikala zone is from November till June. Situated on the edges of Patil Dun, Dhikala zone is a good place to spot Bengal Tiger, Cheetahs, elephants, etc.

 Jeep Safari :

Asian_Elephant_at_Corbett_National_Park_10 As no one is permitted to take their personal vehicles inside the forest area of Corbett national park, one need to take park authorize gypsy’s to enter into the national park for jeep safaris, Jeep safaris can be done through Jhirna, Bijrani and Durgadevi gate of Corbett national park, one need to take permit from Park’s Ramnagar office for jeep safaris and can enter into the forest Area from their respective gate after showing permits to the park officials at these gates. 

Best Time To visit :

The months of November through June are the perfect time to visit Corbett National Park as the park remains open to tourists during these periods only. Moreover June is ideal for a nature walk whereas April and May is perfect for WILD SUNBURN, so summer is not the best time. The main reason for closure of the park during rest of the year is that the roads inside the park get washed away due to rain. The repair work starts after the monsoon and ends only by November till the roads are back in motorable condition.

How To Reach :

By Air : The closest international airport to Corbett National Park is Indira Gandhi International Airport in New Delhi and domestic airport is Pantnagar Airport in Pantnagar, Uttarakhand. From Pantnagar, you can easily avail pre-paid taxis to get to the national park.

By Rail : Ramnagar is the only nearest railway station to Jim Corbett National Park. A direct train to Ramnagar runs from Delhi. Alternatively, one can reach up to Haldwani/Kashipur/Kathgodam and come to Ramnagar by road. Taxis are easily available from these stations.

By Road : Corbett from Delhi which is 260 kilometres, from Lucknow it is 145 kilometres, Nainital about 66 kilometres and Ranikhet about 112 kilometres away.

Image Copyright By common.wikimidia.org

Kanger Ghati National Park

1280px-Kanger_valley1

Among the various protected areas in the country, the Kanger Valley National Park near Jagdalpur, in the Bastar region of Chhattisgarh is one of the most beautiful and densest national parks, Kanger Ghati National Park (also called Kanger Valley National Park) was declared a national park in 1982 by the Government of India. Kanger Ghati National Park is known for its splendid waterfalls, underground limestone caves, stupendous biodiversity and, of course, its beautiful landscape. Kanger Ghati National Park is around 20km from Jagdalpur in Chattisgarh. Jagdalpur is a city in the Bastar region of Chattisgarh. 

National park is an area which is strictly reserved for the betterment of the wildlife & biodiversity, and where activities like developmental, forestry, poaching, hunting and grazing on cultivation are not permitted. The Park is famous for its biodiversity with picturesque landscape, magnificent waterfalls, and underground limestone caves.  The Kanger Ghati National Park in Chhattisgarh bears a living testimony to the helping hands that have been forwarded by the Indian environmentalists and avid animal lovers alike. If you are considering a tour to Chhattisgarh be sure to include this exciting National Park in your travel itinerary. No wonder it has been attracting more and more tourists to its beautiful valleys.

Tirumala_Overview Spread over an area of approximately 200 square kilometres (77 sq mi) consisting mainly of hilly terrain, the park derives its name from the Kanger River, which flows throughout its length. Kanger River is the lifeline of the park. The river not just nourishes the entire valley, but also adds to the aesthetic appeal. There is a Valley approximately 33.5 km long and approx 6 km wide on average that starts from Tirathgarh waterfalls extends upto the boundary of the state Orissa’s, River Kolab.

Kanger Ghati National Park provides you much more than Wildlife in Chhattisgar. The Kailash caves, the Kutamsar caves and the Dandak caves provide ample scope to the tourists for exploring this dense terrain. The dense jungles of Kanger houses many animals like jackals, rhesus macaque, tiger, leopard, striped hyena, monitor lizards, pythons and so on. It also has numerous species of avifauna and is mainly famous for Bastar Hill Myna.

Attraction in Kangar Ghati National Park : 

Flora & fauna : 

Kanger_valley11 The Park also has a sizable tribal population and is an ideal destination for wildlife enthusiasts, nature lovers, researchers, anthropologists and for anyone who wants to discover the very best of Chhattisgarh wildlife and unique tribes of the region as well as varied flora and fauna.

The flora in the park consists chiefly of mixed moist deciduous type of forests with predominance of Sal, Teak and Bamboo trees. In fact, the Kanger Valley is the only region in the Peninsular India where one of the last pockets of virgin and untouched forests still left. According to the survey done by the Botanical Survey of India and other Research Organizations, the National park has 553 floral species out of which 12 species are new to Chhattisgarh, 43 species are reported rare. Floral diversity includes insitu gene bank of medicinal plants, grasses, climbers, wild sugarcane, canes, ferns, epiphytes, Sal, teak, bamboo and their rich associates.

Major Wildlife of the Kanger Valley National Park are the Tigers, Leopards, Mouse Deer, Wild Cat, Chital, Sambar, Barking Deer, Jackals, Langurs, Rhesus Macaque, Sloth Bear, Flying Squirrel, Wild Boar, Striped Hyena, Rabbits, Pythons, Cobra, Crocodiles, Monitor Lizards and Snakes to name a few. The avian fauna at the Park includes Hill Myna, Spotted Owlet, Red Jungle Fowls, Racket-tailed Drongos, Peacocks, Parrots, Steppe Eagles, Red Spur Fall, Phakta, Bhura Teeter, Tree Pie and Heron among many others. A few tributaries form marshy land in early dry season due to natural seepage. Ekta Jhodi, Kyam nallah, Karanji Jhodi, Rajamunda, Punji Jhodi, Komkel Jhodi forms good marshy area which are good habitat of wild boar and sloth bear. Chital and barking dear, Panther are mainly found in this marshy area. Kariya Ama nallah is perennial marshy belt and is ideal habitat of wild boar, sloth bear, chital, leopard & tiger.

Tirathgarh Waterfalls : 

Waterfall_at_Tirathgarh Tirathgarh Waterfalls can be termed as “Milky Fall” because of the white colour of the water as it descends down the rocky slope giving an impression as if milk is falling. It is located inside the park. Splashing streams of water comes down at an incredible speed from a height of more than 100 feet on the river Mugabahar that originates in a lake not very far away from this point. The area surrounding the fall features lush green forests that enhance the beauty of the falls.

Limestone Caves :

Kanger_valley8 There are huge limestone deposits in Kanger Ghati National Park. where some of them are in the form of caves and the rest of it are in the form of layers or beds one upon the other. Some of the caves that are the world famous because of their layout are Kotamsar cave, Dandak Cave, Kailash Cave and Devgiri cave. All lime stone caves are present North of Kanger River between Madarkonta to Kodri Bahar.These structures have taken million of years for its formation.

Kotumsar Caves :

Kotumsar Caves are about 35 meters below ground level and around 1371 meters long. Kotumsar Cave is a subterranean limestone cave located near the banks of Kanger River in the western portion of National park. Kotumsar underground caves made of limestones.  It was discovered by the local people around year 1900 and explored by a renowned Geographer Mr. Sankar Tiwari in the year 1951 and it is one of the best known caves in Chhattisgarh as well as in India.

The best time of the year to visit the Kanger Valley National Park is between the months of November to June.

How to Reach

By Air : Nearest airport is Raipur airport,Which is 330 km away from Kanger Valley National Park.

By Rail : Nearest railway station is Jagdalpur railway station, about 27 Km from the Kanger Valley National Park. Jagdalpur railway station is well connected by road to Kanger Valley National Park.

By Road :Kanger Valley is well approachable from Jagdalpur, district head quarter of Bastar. It is at a distance of about 27 km from Jagdalpur on the Jagdalpur – Konta road. Kanger Valley National Park is well connected to Major Cities and Places by road network. There are a number of government and privately operated vehicles that go to Kanger Valley National Park at frequent intervals.

Image copyright by common.wikimidia.org

Nagarhole National Park

gate_entry

Nagarahole is named after Nagarahole (Cobra river in the local language, Kannada), a winding river which runs eastwards through its centre. Situated in the two districts of Mysore and Kodagu in the state of Karnataka. It was originally constituted into a sanctuary in the year 1955 covering an area of 258 sq. Kms and subsequently enlarged to include the adjoining areas of Mysore district and now extends over an area of 643.39 sq. kms which was given the status of a National Park in 1983.

Nagarhole National Park is a national park located in Kodagu district and Mysore district in Karnataka state in South India. This park was declared the thirty seventh Project Tiger tiger reserve in 1999. It is the apart of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and together with Bandipur National Park (875 sq. kms) and Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary (325 sq. kms) to its South East and Wayanad (350 sq. kms) to the South-West, is one of the last remaining and best protected habitats for endangered species like the Elephant and the Tiger, It is under consideration by the UNESCOWorld Heritage Committee for selection as a World Heritage Site. Rich in wildlife, jungle and boasting a scenic lake, Nagarhole National Park, is one of Karnataka’s best wildlife getaways, containing good numbers of animals including tigers and elephants. Flanking the Kabini River, it forms an important protected region that includes the neighbouring Bandipur National Park and several other reserves.  These forests also consist of three major predators of the region – tiger, leopard and dhole or wild dog, all three co-existing in high densities. 

stray_cattle nagarhole-national-park-tiger image_485_Nagarhole-National-Park_003

Other animals that have made their habitat in Nagarhole are Indian bison, porcupines, jackals, hyenas, Sloth bears, and not to mention Niligiri tahrs and Niligiri langurs, among many others. The Kabini River and several smaller streams running through the forest provide great views of the natural landscape and as well as ample opportunities to spot various fauna out for a drink.

short history of the park :

Originally the forest area was the private hunting sanctuary for the Mysore royals. In 1955 the two adjacent forest ranges ( Mysore and Nagarhole) combined to form the Nagarhole National Park. Later the park is named after the late prime minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi. The park derives its name from naga, meaning snake and hole, referring to streams. It was upgraded into a national park in 1988. The park was declared a tiger reserve in 1999. The Kabini River separates the Nagarahole National Park from the Bandipur National Park. Besides the Kabini, there are other rivers flowing in the vicinity of the park and these are the Lakshmana and Teentha rivers. The park is dotted with enchanting greenery and forest cover, coupled with waterfalls and a wide array of wildlife.

Climate & Rainfall :

The summer (March to May) temperature slightly crosses 30°C mark. The brief winter, which lasts from November to January, has temperature plummeting to 14°C. Monsoon is erratic, but it generally rains from June to September. The park receives an annual rainfall of 1,440 millimetres (57 in).

What to See In Nagarhole :

There are several resorts near the park that offer panoramic views of the park and its wildlife. Tourists have to take jeeps and vans run by the forest department accompanies by an expert guide while moving through the park. The park also has innumerable observation towers that help you have a closer look at the wildlife residing in it. Enjoy trekking through the park surrounded by exquisite variety of flora and fauna.

1280px-Nagarhole_National_Park,_Kodagu_6898 Driving_through_the_Nagerhole_National_Park Leopard_in_Rajiv_Gandhi_National_Park

Flora :

The vegetation here consists mainly of North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests with (teak and rosewood predominating in the southern parts. There is Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests with Pala indigo and thorny wattle towards the east. There are some sub-montane valley swamp forests with several species of the Eugenia genus. The upper tree canopy is dominated by Terminalia tomentosa in association with Tectonia grandis, Dalbergia latifolia, Pterocarpus marsupium, Lagerstroemia lanceolata, Anogeissus latifolia, Adina cordifolia, Boambax malabaricum, Schleichera trijuga, Ficus sp. and others. The lower canopy has Kydia calycina, Emblica officinalis, Gmelina arborea etc. Several shrubs belonging to Solanum, Desmodium and Helicteres sp. etc. are abundantly found but weedy shrubs like Eupatorium and Lantana now dominate. These forests have some conspicuous tree species such as golden shower treeflame of the forest and clumping bamboo

Fauna : 

The park protects the wildlife of Karnataka. The important predators and carnivores in Nagarhole National Park are the Bengal tiger,Indian leopardUssuri dhole , sloth bear and the striped hyena . The herbivores are chitalsambar deerbarking deerfour-horned antelope , gaur , wild boar  and Indian elephant. Nagarhole National Park provides an opportunity to see some of the southern population of gaur. Also, this park in Karnataka is a good place to see elephants in the luxuriant forests and bamboo thickets which they most enjoy. Their total population in southern India is now about 6500, nearly all living in the area where Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala adjoin in the shadow of the Western Ghats. 

How to Reach :

By Air : The nearest airports are in Bangalore(236)  and Mysore(96 km)

By RailThe nearest railway station is Mystore which is 80 km away from Nagarhole. Mysore is well connected to Bangalore

By Road : The Bus service is available from nearest place like Mysore (96 km), Madikeri (93 km), Bangalore (236 km).

Image copyright by amoghavarsha.com, thetravellerweare.blogspot.com, journeymart.com, oddroad.com, commons.wikimedia.org