Among the various protected areas in the country, the Kanger Valley National Park near Jagdalpur, in the Bastar region of Chhattisgarh is one of the most beautiful and densest national parks, Kanger Ghati National Park (also called Kanger Valley National Park) was declared a national park in 1982 by the Government of India. Kanger Ghati National Park is known for its splendid waterfalls, underground limestone caves, stupendous biodiversity and, of course, its beautiful landscape. Kanger Ghati National Park is around 20km from Jagdalpur in Chattisgarh. Jagdalpur is a city in the Bastar region of Chattisgarh.
National park is an area which is strictly reserved for the betterment of the wildlife & biodiversity, and where activities like developmental, forestry, poaching, hunting and grazing on cultivation are not permitted. The Park is famous for its biodiversity with picturesque landscape, magnificent waterfalls, and underground limestone caves. The Kanger Ghati National Park in Chhattisgarh bears a living testimony to the helping hands that have been forwarded by the Indian environmentalists and avid animal lovers alike. If you are considering a tour to Chhattisgarh be sure to include this exciting National Park in your travel itinerary. No wonder it has been attracting more and more tourists to its beautiful valleys.
Spread over an area of approximately 200 square kilometres (77 sq mi) consisting mainly of hilly terrain, the park derives its name from the Kanger River, which flows throughout its length. Kanger River is the lifeline of the park. The river not just nourishes the entire valley, but also adds to the aesthetic appeal. There is a Valley approximately 33.5 km long and approx 6 km wide on average that starts from Tirathgarh waterfalls extends upto the boundary of the state Orissa’s, River Kolab.
Kanger Ghati National Park provides you much more than Wildlife in Chhattisgar. The Kailash caves, the Kutamsar caves and the Dandak caves provide ample scope to the tourists for exploring this dense terrain. The dense jungles of Kanger houses many animals like jackals, rhesus macaque, tiger, leopard, striped hyena, monitor lizards, pythons and so on. It also has numerous species of avifauna and is mainly famous for Bastar Hill Myna.
Attraction in Kangar Ghati National Park :
Flora & fauna :
The Park also has a sizable tribal population and is an ideal destination for wildlife enthusiasts, nature lovers, researchers, anthropologists and for anyone who wants to discover the very best of Chhattisgarh wildlife and unique tribes of the region as well as varied flora and fauna.
The flora in the park consists chiefly of mixed moist deciduous type of forests with predominance of Sal, Teak and Bamboo trees. In fact, the Kanger Valley is the only region in the Peninsular India where one of the last pockets of virgin and untouched forests still left. According to the survey done by the Botanical Survey of India and other Research Organizations, the National park has 553 floral species out of which 12 species are new to Chhattisgarh, 43 species are reported rare. Floral diversity includes insitu gene bank of medicinal plants, grasses, climbers, wild sugarcane, canes, ferns, epiphytes, Sal, teak, bamboo and their rich associates.
Major Wildlife of the Kanger Valley National Park are the Tigers, Leopards, Mouse Deer, Wild Cat, Chital, Sambar, Barking Deer, Jackals, Langurs, Rhesus Macaque, Sloth Bear, Flying Squirrel, Wild Boar, Striped Hyena, Rabbits, Pythons, Cobra, Crocodiles, Monitor Lizards and Snakes to name a few. The avian fauna at the Park includes Hill Myna, Spotted Owlet, Red Jungle Fowls, Racket-tailed Drongos, Peacocks, Parrots, Steppe Eagles, Red Spur Fall, Phakta, Bhura Teeter, Tree Pie and Heron among many others. A few tributaries form marshy land in early dry season due to natural seepage. Ekta Jhodi, Kyam nallah, Karanji Jhodi, Rajamunda, Punji Jhodi, Komkel Jhodi forms good marshy area which are good habitat of wild boar and sloth bear. Chital and barking dear, Panther are mainly found in this marshy area. Kariya Ama nallah is perennial marshy belt and is ideal habitat of wild boar, sloth bear, chital, leopard & tiger.
Tirathgarh Waterfalls :
Tirathgarh Waterfalls can be termed as “Milky Fall” because of the white colour of the water as it descends down the rocky slope giving an impression as if milk is falling. It is located inside the park. Splashing streams of water comes down at an incredible speed from a height of more than 100 feet on the river Mugabahar that originates in a lake not very far away from this point. The area surrounding the fall features lush green forests that enhance the beauty of the falls.
Limestone Caves :
There are huge limestone deposits in Kanger Ghati National Park. where some of them are in the form of caves and the rest of it are in the form of layers or beds one upon the other. Some of the caves that are the world famous because of their layout are Kotamsar cave, Dandak Cave, Kailash Cave and Devgiri cave. All lime stone caves are present North of Kanger River between Madarkonta to Kodri Bahar.These structures have taken million of years for its formation.
Kotumsar Caves :
Kotumsar Caves are about 35 meters below ground level and around 1371 meters long. Kotumsar Cave is a subterranean limestone cave located near the banks of Kanger River in the western portion of National park. Kotumsar underground caves made of limestones. It was discovered by the local people around year 1900 and explored by a renowned Geographer Mr. Sankar Tiwari in the year 1951 and it is one of the best known caves in Chhattisgarh as well as in India.
The best time of the year to visit the Kanger Valley National Park is between the months of November to June.
How to Reach
By Air : Nearest airport is Raipur airport,Which is 330 km away from Kanger Valley National Park.
By Rail : Nearest railway station is Jagdalpur railway station, about 27 Km from the Kanger Valley National Park. Jagdalpur railway station is well connected by road to Kanger Valley National Park.
By Road :Kanger Valley is well approachable from Jagdalpur, district head quarter of Bastar. It is at a distance of about 27 km from Jagdalpur on the Jagdalpur – Konta road. Kanger Valley National Park is well connected to Major Cities and Places by road network. There are a number of government and privately operated vehicles that go to Kanger Valley National Park at frequent intervals.
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Nagarahole is named after Nagarahole (Cobra river in the local language, Kannada), a winding river which runs eastwards through its centre. Situated in the two districts of Mysore and Kodagu in the state of Karnataka. It was originally constituted into a sanctuary in the year 1955 covering an area of 258 sq. Kms and subsequently enlarged to include the adjoining areas of Mysore district and now extends over an area of 643.39 sq. kms which was given the status of a National Park in 1983.
Nagarhole National Park is a national park located in Kodagu district and Mysore district in Karnataka state in South India. This park was declared the thirty seventh Project Tiger tiger reserve in 1999. It is the apart of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and together with Bandipur National Park (875 sq. kms) and Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary (325 sq. kms) to its South East and Wayanad (350 sq. kms) to the South-West, is one of the last remaining and best protected habitats for endangered species like the Elephant and the Tiger, It is under consideration by the UNESCOWorld Heritage Committee for selection as a World Heritage Site. Rich in wildlife, jungle and boasting a scenic lake, Nagarhole National Park, is one of Karnataka’s best wildlife getaways, containing good numbers of animals including tigers and elephants. Flanking the Kabini River, it forms an important protected region that includes the neighbouring Bandipur National Park and several other reserves. These forests also consist of three major predators of the region – tiger, leopard and dhole or wild dog, all three co-existing in high densities.
Other animals that have made their habitat in Nagarhole are Indian bison, porcupines, jackals, hyenas, Sloth bears, and not to mention Niligiri tahrs and Niligiri langurs, among many others. The Kabini River and several smaller streams running through the forest provide great views of the natural landscape and as well as ample opportunities to spot various fauna out for a drink.
short history of the park :
Originally the forest area was the private hunting sanctuary for the Mysore royals. In 1955 the two adjacent forest ranges ( Mysore and Nagarhole) combined to form the Nagarhole National Park. Later the park is named after the late prime minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi. The park derives its name from naga, meaning snake and hole, referring to streams. It was upgraded into a national park in 1988. The park was declared a tiger reserve in 1999. The Kabini River separates the Nagarahole National Park from the Bandipur National Park. Besides the Kabini, there are other rivers flowing in the vicinity of the park and these are the Lakshmana and Teentha rivers. The park is dotted with enchanting greenery and forest cover, coupled with waterfalls and a wide array of wildlife.
Climate & Rainfall :
The summer (March to May) temperature slightly crosses 30°C mark. The brief winter, which lasts from November to January, has temperature plummeting to 14°C. Monsoon is erratic, but it generally rains from June to September. The park receives an annual rainfall of 1,440 millimetres (57 in).
What to See In Nagarhole :
There are several resorts near the park that offer panoramic views of the park and its wildlife. Tourists have to take jeeps and vans run by the forest department accompanies by an expert guide while moving through the park. The park also has innumerable observation towers that help you have a closer look at the wildlife residing in it. Enjoy trekking through the park surrounded by exquisite variety of flora and fauna.
The vegetation here consists mainly of North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests with (teak and rosewood predominating in the southern parts. There is Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests with Pala indigo and thorny wattle towards the east. There are some sub-montane valley swamp forests with several species of the Eugenia genus. The upper tree canopy is dominated by Terminalia tomentosa in association with Tectonia grandis, Dalbergia latifolia, Pterocarpus marsupium, Lagerstroemia lanceolata, Anogeissus latifolia, Adina cordifolia, Boambax malabaricum, Schleichera trijuga, Ficus sp. and others. The lower canopy has Kydia calycina, Emblica officinalis, Gmelina arborea etc. Several shrubs belonging to Solanum, Desmodium and Helicteres sp. etc. are abundantly found but weedy shrubs like Eupatorium and Lantana now dominate. These forests have some conspicuous tree species such as golden shower tree, flame of the forest and clumping bamboo
The park protects the wildlife of Karnataka. The important predators and carnivores in Nagarhole National Park are the Bengal tiger,Indian leopard, Ussuri dhole , sloth bear and the striped hyena . The herbivores are chital, sambar deer, barking deer, four-horned antelope , gaur , wild boar and Indian elephant. Nagarhole National Park provides an opportunity to see some of the southern population of gaur. Also, this park in Karnataka is a good place to see elephants in the luxuriant forests and bamboo thickets which they most enjoy. Their total population in southern India is now about 6500, nearly all living in the area where Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala adjoin in the shadow of the Western Ghats.
How to Reach :
By Air : The nearest airports are in Bangalore(236) and Mysore(96 km)
By Rail : The nearest railway station is Mystore which is 80 km away from Nagarhole. Mysore is well connected to Bangalore
By Road : The Bus service is available from nearest place like Mysore (96 km), Madikeri (93 km), Bangalore (236 km).
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Nanda Devi is the second highest mountain in India, and the highest located entirely within the country. Nanda Devi rises in Uttarakhand, India, at the height of 25,643 feet. It is the 23rd-highest peak in the world. It was considered the highest mountain in the world before computations in 1808 proved Dhaulagiri to be higher. Nanda Devi is one of the highest peaks in the Indian Himalaya. The mountain has two summits, the main summit at 7816m and Nanda Devi East at 7434m. The mountain itself in surrounded by a number of peaks over 7000 Meters making it an extremely difficult mountain to access. It is a great white double pyramid overlooking the sacred Garhwal region.
Nanda Devi is considered as the deity and is worshiped among the locals of the region. According to the legends, Nanda Devi was the daughter of the local king. A marauding king wants to marry her. When Nanda devi father refused to do so, he declared war against them. Her father was killed and she somehow escaped. She found refuge on the mountain, now named after her. Till then she is protected by the ring of mountains containing 12 peaks. The Nanda Devi East is also referred to as the Sunanda Devi. Sunanda Devi and Nanda Devi have both been mentioned in the holy ancient Hindu scriptures ‘Bhagavata Purana’ and these twin Goddesses are worshiped all over the Kumaon Himalayas as well as throughout the state of Uttarakhand.
Tourist Atraction :
Tourists can make a visit to the Nanda Devi National Park, famous for its rare species of animals. Dominated by the imposing peaks of the Nanda Devi, the national park is famed to be one of the most spectacular wildernesses in the Indian Himalayas. This sanctuary, which covers an area of 630 sq km, is divided into two parts- the outer and the inner walls. The Nanda Devi National Park is home to many wild and endangered animals like the Himalayan black bear, snow leopard, lingus, brown bears among others. This sanctuary is also a home to 312 different variety of floral species. The main vegetation in this region consists of pine, fir, rhododendron, and junipers.
The park has been notified as the UNESCO World Heritage Site. Fir, birch, rhododendron and juniper contribute to the rich floral system of the park. Tourists can indulge in nature walk or can for the wildlife safari along with the forest officer. The main attractions of the park include Brown Bear, Bharal, Common Langur, Goral,Himalayan Tahr, Himalayan Black Bear, Himalayan Musk, Indian Leopard, Serow and snow leopard. Apart from this the avifaunas of the park include Grosbeaks, Rose Finches, Ruby Throat, and Warblers.
The Nanda Devi natural park remains open from 1st of May until 31st of October every year.
Every year Nanda Devi mela is held at the Nanda Devi temple in the month of September. On this particular day people of this region pay homage to the Goddess Nanda Devi. This mela was started during the region of Raja Kalyan Chand in the 16th century.
Located in the Rishi Ganga River catchment, Nanda Devi north and Nanda Devi south are the two glaciers, which are approximately 19 km in length. The Nanda Devi glaciers originating from the southern slope of the Nanda Devi peak are the treat to the tourists eye. Several streams originate from these glaciers and forms the river Rishi Ganga.
How to reach :
Nearest Airport is New Delhi. From From New Delhi to Rishikesh Can be reached by both bus and car, From the town of Rishikesh one can take a bus to the small town in the Himalayas known as Joshimath and then take another 25 km bus or car ride to the village of Lata, which is more popularly known as the unofficial base camp for the Nanda Devi mountain climbing trail.
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Kaziranga National Park is one of the prides of India. Kaziranga National Park is the name to exemplify the most popular conservation efforts to save the endangered species like one-horned rhinoceros in India. The park’s population of 1800-odd rhinos represents more than two-thirds of the world’s total. Kaziranga National Park is spread over 858 sq.kms and is located in the floodplains on both sides of the Brahmaputra river. Patches of mixed deciduous forests are interspersed with vast stretches of savannah grasslands, wetlands and chars of river islands formed by the shifting course of the Brahmaputra. Kaziranga National Park is Located in the Golaghat and Nagaon districts of the state of Assam, India.
In the heart of Assam, this park is one of the last areas in eastern India undisturbed by a human presence. It is inhabited by the world’s largest population of one-horned rhinoceroses, as well as many mammals, including tigers, elephants, panthers and bears, and thousands of birds. The Endangered Ganges dolphin is also found in some of the closed oxbow lakes.Forests is marked by the 41% of the tall grasses, 29% open jungle, 11% short grasses and rest is covered with the rivers and the water bodies.
Indian one-horned rhinoceros and also declared as a tiger reserve in 2006, holding the highest density of tigers in the world.
The park is divided into five ranges:
1. Central 2. Western 3. Eastern 4. Western-most Burha Pahar 5. Northern
The first four lie on the southern side of the river while the last is on the northern bank
Kaziranga is a vast expanse of tall elephant grass, marshland, and dense tropical moist broadleaf forests, criss-crossed by four major rivers, including the Brahmaputra, and the park includes numerous small bodies of water. Kaziranga has been the theme of several books, songs, and documentaries.
The terrain in the park comprises mainly of sandbanks, riverine lakes, Semi-evergreen forests, moist broad-leaf forests and grasslands. The park is spread in a massive area which makes it one of the largest protected forests in the Sub-Himalayan belt.
Climate & Rainfall :
The climate of Kaziranga Park is tropical, The park experiences three seasons: summer. monsoon, and winter. The winter season, between November and February, is mild and dry, with temperatures reaching a low 5 °C. During this season, beels and nallahs Dry up. The summer season between March and May is hot, with a maximum temperature approx 37°C . During this season, animals usually are found near water bodies. The rainy monsoon season lasts from June to September, and the average annual rainfall is 2,220 mm. During the peak months of July and August, three-fourths of the western region of the park is submerged, due to the rising water level of the Brahmaputra.
Kaziranga National Park is one of the major wildlife tourist’s attractions in India. Thousands of travelers from different part of the country and world come here every year to unlock the doors of diverse wildlife and scout the exquisiteness of the natural empire. The perfect topography with a river and its varied grasslands winds through its entire length, Kaziranga promises an adventure that you will never forget. The tourism of Kaziranga is not just about spotting one of the many one-horned rhinoceros or tigers but also to watch the three giant herbivores that reside in the park called – The Asiatic Elephant, The Swamp Deer and the Asiatic Water Buffaloes. The park has also been demarcated as an important bird area by the Birdlife International in order to promote the conservation of endangered species.
Fauna & Flora :
Kaziranga National Park has chiefly three major types of flora as alluvial inundated grasslands, tropical wet evergreen forests and tropical semi-evergreen forests. But, the main characteristics of flora in Kaziranga are the dense and tall elephant grass intermixed by small swamplands left behind by the receding floodwaters of the river Brahmaputra. n addition to grasses and forests, the swamps of Kaziranga National Park have an abundant cover of water lilies, water hyacinth and lotus, providing a beautiful look to the surroundings of the park. Rattan Cane, which is a type of climbing palm, also adds to the natural beauty of Kaziranga National Park.
Kaziranga contains significant breeding populations of 35 mammalian species, of which 15 are threatened as per the IUCN Red List. The park has the distinction of being home to the world’s largest population of the Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros, wild Asiatic water buffalo, and eastern swamp deer. Kaziranga has been identified by Birdlife International as an Important Bird Area. It is home to a variety of migratory birds, water birds, predators, scavengers, and game birds. Birds such as thelesser white-fronted goose, ferruginous duck, Baer’s pochard duck and lesser adjutant, greater adjutant, black-necked stork, and Asian openbill stork migrate from Central Asia to the park during winter. Two of the largest snakes in the world, the reticulated python and rock python, as well as the longest venomous snake in the world, the king cobra, inhabit the park. Other snakes found here include the Indian cobra, monocled cobra, Russell’s viper, and the common krait. Monitor lizard species found in the park include the Bengal monitor and the Asian water monitor
Best Time to Visit :
The best season to visit Kaziranga National Park is between November and April. From 1st of Nov to 30th of April, the park remains open daily for continuous six months being the monsoons as the exceptional season to close the area for safety reasons by the national park management. You can see the migratory birds closely in a fine temperature.
Nearby Places :
Rowraiah (Jorhat) is Nearest Airport which is 97 Km away from Kaziranga, LGBI Airport which is 239 Km away from Kaziranga. The nearest railhead is at the distance of 75 kms from the Kaziranga National Park in Furkating. Government transports are available frequently from nearest cities and towns such as Jorhat (89 Kms.), Nagaon (96 Kms.), Guwahati (219 Kms.), Golaghat (73 Kms.) and Bokakhat (21 Kms.).
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